# The MultiMolecule Class¶

The API of the MultiMolecule class.

## API FOX.MultiMolecule¶

class FOX.classes.multi_mol.MultiMolecule(coords: numpy.ndarray, atoms: Optional[Dict[str, List[int]]] = None, bonds: Optional[numpy.ndarray] = None, properties: Optional[Dict[str, Any]] = None)[source]

A class designed for handling a and manipulating large numbers of molecules.

More specifically, different conformations of a single molecule as derived from, for example, an intrinsic reaction coordinate calculation (IRC) or a molecular dymanics trajectory (MD). The class has access to four attributes (further details are provided under parameters):

Parameters: coords ($$m*n*3$$ np.ndarray [np.float64]) – A 3D array with the cartesian coordinates of $$m$$ molecules with $$n$$ atoms. atoms (dict [str, list [int]]) – A dictionary with atomic symbols as keys and matching atomic indices as values. Stored in the MultiMolecule.atoms attribute. bonds ($$k*3$$ np.ndarray [np.int64]) – A 2D array with indices of the atoms defining all $$k$$ bonds (columns 1 & 2) and their respective bond orders multiplied by 10 (column 3). Stored in the MultiMolecule.bonds attribute. properties (dict) – A Settings instance for storing miscellaneous user-defined (meta-)data. Is devoid of keys by default. Stored in the MultiMolecule.properties attribute.
atoms: dict [str, list [int]]

A dictionary with atomic symbols as keys and matching atomic indices as values.

bonds: :math:k*3 |np.ndarray|_ [|np.int64|_]

A 2D array with indices of the atoms defining all $$k$$ bonds (columns 1 & 2) and their respective bond orders multiplied by 10 (column 3).

properties: |plams.Settings|_

A Settings instance for storing miscellaneous user-defined (meta-)data. Is devoid of keys by default.

round(decimals=0, inplace=True)[source]

Round the Cartesian coordinates of this instance to a given number of decimals.

Parameters: decimals (int) – The number of decimals per element. inplace (bool) – Instead of returning the new coordinates, perform an inplace update of this instance.
delete_atoms(atom_subset)[source]

Create a copy of this instance with all atoms in atom_subset removed.

Parameters: atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A new MultiMolecule instance with all atoms in atom_subset removed. FOX.MultiMolecule TypeError – Raised if atom_subset is None.
add_atoms(coords, symbols='Xx')[source]

Create a copy of this instance with all atoms in atom_subset appended.

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from FOX import MultiMolecule, example_xyz

>>> mol = MultiMolecule.from_xyz(example_xyz)
>>> coords: np.ndarray = np.random.rand(73, 3)  # Add 73 new atoms with random coords
>>> symbols = 'Br'

>>> mol_new: MultiMolecule = mol.add_atoms(coords, symbols)

>>> print(repr(mol))
MultiMolecule(..., shape=(4905, 227, 3), dtype='float64')
>>> print(repr(mol_new))
MultiMolecule(..., shape=(4905, 300, 3), dtype='float64')

Parameters: coords (array-like) – A $$(3,)$$, $$(n, 3)$$, $$(m, 3)$$ or $$(m, n, 3)$$ array-like object with m == len(self). Represents the Cartesian coordinates of the to-be added atoms. symbols (str or Iterable [str]) – One or more atomic symbols of the to-be added atoms. A new MultiMolecule instance with all atoms in atom_subset appended. FOX.MultiMolecule
guess_bonds(atom_subset=None)[source]

Guess bonds within the molecules based on atom type and inter-atomic distances.

Bonds are guessed based on the first molecule in this instance Performs an inplace modification of self.bonds

Parameters: atom_subset (Sequence) – A tuple of atomic symbols. Bonds are guessed between all atoms whose atomic symbol is in atom_subset. If None, guess bonds for all atoms in this instance. None
random_slice(start=0, stop=None, p=0.5, inplace=False)[source]

Construct a new MultiMolecule instance by randomly slicing this instance.

The probability of including a particular element is equivalent to p.

Parameters: start (int) – Start of the interval. stop (int) – End of the interval. p (float) – The probability of including each particular molecule in this instance. Values must be between 0.0 (0%) and 1.0 (100%). inplace (bool) – Instead of returning the new coordinates, perform an inplace update of this instance. If inplace is True, return a new MultiMolecule instance. ValueError – Raised if p is smaller than 0.0 or larger than 1.0.
reset_origin(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None, inplace=True)[source]

Reallign all molecules in this instance.

All molecules in this instance are rotating and translating, by performing a partial partial Procrustes superimposition with respect to the first molecule in this instance.

The superimposition is carried out with respect to the first molecule in this instance.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. inplace (bool) – Instead of returning the new coordinates, perform an inplace update of this instance. If inplace is True, return a new MultiMolecule instance.
sort(sort_by='symbol', reverse=False, inplace=True)[source]

Sort the atoms in this instance and self.atoms, performing in inplace update.

Parameters: sort_by (str or Sequence [int]) – The property which is to be used for sorting. Accepted values: "symbol" (i.e. alphabetical), "atnum", "mass", "radius" or "connectors". See the plams.PeriodicTable module for more details. Alternatively, a user-specified sequence of indices can be provided for sorting. reverse (bool) – Sort in reversed order. inplace (bool) – Instead of returning the new coordinates, perform an inplace update of this instance. If inplace is True, return a new MultiMolecule instance.
residue_argsort(concatenate=True)[source]

Return the indices that would sort this instance by residue number.

Residues are defined based on moleculair fragments based on self.bonds.

Parameters: concatenate (bool) – If False, returned a nested list with atomic indices. Each sublist contains the indices of a single residue. A 1D array of indices that would sort $$n$$ atoms this instance. $$n$$ np.ndarray [np.int64]
get_center_of_mass(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Get the center of mass.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A 2D array with the centres of mass of $$m$$ molecules with $$n$$ atoms. $$m*3$$ np.ndarray [np.float64]
get_bonds_per_atom(atom_subset=None)[source]

Get the number of bonds per atom in this instance.

Parameters: atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A 1D array with the number of bonds per atom, for all $$n$$ atoms in this instance. $$n$$ np.ndarray [np.int64]
init_average_velocity(timestep=1.0, rms=False, mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Calculate the average atomic velocty.

The average velocity (in fs/A) is calculated for all atoms in atom_subset over the course of a trajectory.

The velocity is averaged over all atoms in a particular atom subset.

Parameters: timestep (float) – The stepsize, in femtoseconds, between subsequent frames. rms (bool) – Calculate the root-mean squared average velocity instead. mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A dataframe holding $$m-1$$ velocities averaged over one or more atom subsets. pd.DataFrame
init_time_averaged_velocity(timestep=1.0, rms=False, mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Calculate the time-averaged velocty.

The time-averaged velocity (in fs/A) is calculated for all atoms in atom_subset over the course of a trajectory.

Parameters: timestep (float) – The stepsize, in femtoseconds, between subsequent frames. rms (bool) – Calculate the root-mean squared time-averaged velocity instead. mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A dataframe holding $$m-1$$ time-averaged velocities. pd.DataFrame
init_rmsd(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None, reset_origin=True)[source]

Initialize the RMSD calculation, returning a dataframe.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. reset_origin (bool) – Reset the origin of each molecule in this instance by means of a partial Procrustes superimposition, translating and rotating the molecules. A dataframe of RMSDs with one column for every string or list of ints in atom_subset. Keys consist of atomic symbols (e.g. "Cd") if atom_subset contains strings, otherwise a more generic ‘series ‘ + str(int) scheme is adopted (e.g. "series 2"). Molecular indices are used as index. pd.DataFrame
init_rmsf(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None, reset_origin=True)[source]

Initialize the RMSF calculation, returning a dataframe.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. reset_origin (bool) – Reset the origin of each molecule in this instance by means of a partial Procrustes superimposition, translating and rotating the molecules. A dataframe of RMSFs with one column for every string or list of ints in atom_subset. Keys consist of atomic symbols (e.g. "Cd") if atom_subset contains strings, otherwise a more generic ‘series ‘ + str(int) scheme is adopted (e.g. "series 2"). Molecular indices are used as indices. pd.DataFrame
get_average_velocity(timestep=1.0, rms=False, mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Return the mean or root-mean squared velocity.

Parameters: timestep (float) – The stepsize, in femtoseconds, between subsequent frames. rms (bool) – Calculate the root-mean squared average velocity instead. mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A 1D array holding $$m-1$$ velocities averaged over one or more atom subsets. $$m-1$$ np.ndarray [np.float64]
get_time_averaged_velocity(timestep=1.0, rms=False, mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Return the mean or root-mean squared velocity (mean = time-averaged).

Parameters: timestep (float) – The stepsize, in femtoseconds, between subsequent frames. rms (bool) – Calculate the root-mean squared average velocity instead. mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A 1D array holding $$n$$ time-averaged velocities. $$n$$ np.ndarray [np.float64]
get_velocity(timestep=1.0, norm=True, mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Return the atomic velocties.

The velocity (in fs/A) is calculated for all atoms in atom_subset over the course of a trajectory.

Parameters: timestep (float) – The stepsize, in femtoseconds, between subsequent frames. norm (bool) – If True return the norm of the $$x$$, $$y$$ and $$z$$ velocity components. mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A 2D or 3D array of atomic velocities, the number of dimensions depending on the value of norm (True = 2D; False = 3D). $$m*n$$ or $$m*n*3$$ np.ndarray [np.float64]
get_rmsd(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Calculate the root mean square displacement (RMSD).

The RMSD is calculated with respect to the first molecule in this instance.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A dataframe with the RMSD as a function of the XYZ frame numbers. pd.DataFrame
get_rmsf(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Calculate the root mean square fluctuation (RMSF).

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A dataframe with the RMSF as a function of atomic indices. pd.DataFrame

Calculate and return properties which can help determining shell structures.

The following two properties are calculated and returned:

• The mean distance (per atom) with respect to the center of mass (i.e. a modified RMSF).
• A series mapping abritrary atomic indices in the RMSF to the actual atomic indices.
• The radial distribution function (RDF) with respect to the center of mass.
Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. rdf_cutoff (float) – Remove all values in the RDF below this value (Angstrom). Usefull for dealing with divergence as the “inter-atomic” distance approaches 0.0 A. Returns the following items: A dataframe holding the mean distance of all atoms with respect the to center of mass. A series mapping the indices from 1. to the actual atomic indices. A dataframe holding the RDF with respect to the center of mass.
static get_at_idx(rmsf, idx_series, dist_dict)[source]

Create subsets of atomic indices.

The subset is created (using rmsf and idx_series) based on distance criteria in dist_dict.

For example, dist_dict = {'Cd': [3.0, 6.5]} will create and return a dictionary with three keys: One for all atoms whose RMSF is smaller than 3.0, one where the RMSF is between 3.0 and 6.5, and finally one where the RMSF is larger than 6.5.

Examples

>>> dist_dict = {'Cd': [3.0, 6.5]}
>>> idx_series = pd.Series(np.arange(12))
>>> rmsf = pd.DataFrame({'Cd': np.arange(12, dtype=float)})
>>> get_at_idx(rmsf, idx_series, dist_dict)

{'Cd_1': [0, 1, 2],
'Cd_2': [3, 4, 5],
'Cd_3': [7, 8, 9, 10, 11]
}

Parameters: rmsf (pd.DataFrame) – A dataframe holding the results of an RMSF calculation. idx_series (pd.Series) – A series mapping the indices from rmsf to actual atomic indices. dist_dict (dict [str, list [float]]) – A dictionary with atomic symbols (see rmsf.columns) and a list of interatomic distances. A dictionary with atomic symbols as keys, and matching atomic indices as values. dict [str, list [int]] KeyError – Raised if a key in dist_dict is absent from rmsf.
init_rdf(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None, dr=0.05, r_max=12.0, mem_level=2)[source]

Initialize the calculation of radial distribution functions (RDFs).

RDFs are calculated for all possible atom-pairs in atom_subset and returned as a dataframe.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. dr (float) – The integration step-size in Ångström, i.e. the distance between concentric spheres. r_max (float) – The maximum to be evaluated interatomic distance in Ångström. mem_level (int) – Set the level of to-be consumed memory and, by extension, the execution speed. Given a molecule subset of size $$m$$, atom subsets of (up to) size $$n$$ and the resulting RDF with $$p$$ points (p = r_max / dr), the mem_level values can be interpreted as following: 0: Slow; memory scaling: $$n^2$$ 1: Medium; memory scaling: $$n^2 + m * p$$ 2: Fast; memory scaling: $$n^2 * m$$ A dataframe of radial distribution functions, averaged over all conformations in xyz_array. Keys are of the form: at_symbol1 + ‘ ‘ + at_symbol2 (e.g. "Cd Cd"). Radii are used as index. pd.DataFrame
get_dist_mat(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None, None)[source]

Create and return a distance matrix for all molecules and atoms in this instance.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A 3D distance matrix of $$m$$ molecules, created out of two sets of $$n$$ and $$k$$ atoms. $$m*n*k$$ np.ndarray [np.float64]
get_pair_dict(atom_subset, r=2)[source]

Take a subset of atoms and return a dictionary.

Parameters: atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. r (int) – The length of the to-be returned subsets.
init_power_spectrum(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None, freq_max=4000)[source]

Calculate and return the power spectrum associated with this instance.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. freq_max (int) – The maximum to be returned wavenumber (cm**-1). A DataFrame containing the power spectrum for each set of atoms in atom_subset. pd.DataFrame
get_vacf(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Calculate and return the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF).

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A DataFrame containing the power spectrum for each set of atoms in atom_subset. pd.DataFrame
init_adf(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None, r_max=8.0, weight=<function neg_exp>)[source]

Initialize the calculation of distance-weighted angular distribution functions (ADFs).

ADFs are calculated for all possible atom-pairs in atom_subset and returned as a dataframe.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. r_max (float or str) – The maximum inter-atomic distance (in Angstrom) for which angles are constructed. The distance cuttoff can be disabled by settings this value to np.inf, "np.inf" or "inf". weight (Callable[[np.ndarray], np.ndarray], optional) – A callable for creating a weighting factor from inter-atomic distances. The callable should take an array as input and return an array. Given an angle $$\phi_{ijk}$$, to the distance $$r_{ijk}$$ is defined as $$max[r_{ij}, r_{jk}]$$. Set to None to disable distance weighting. A dataframe of angular distribution functions, averaged over all conformations in this instance. pd.DataFrame

Note

Disabling the distance cuttoff is strongly recommended (i.e. it is faster) for large values of r_max. As a rough guideline, r_max="inf" is roughly as fast as r_max=15.0 (though this is, of course, system dependant).

Note

The ADF construction will be conducted in parralel if the DASK package is installed. DASK can be installed, via anaconda, with the following command: conda install -n FOX -y -c conda-forge dask.

get_angle_mat(mol_subset=0, atom_subset=None, None, None, get_r_max=False)[source]

Create and return an angle matrix for all molecules and atoms in this instance.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. get_r_max (bool) – Whether or not the maximum distance should be returned or not. A 4D angle matrix of $$m$$ molecules, created out of three sets of $$n$$, $$k$$ and $$l$$ atoms. If get_r_max = True, also return the maximum distance. $$m*n*k*l$$ np.ndarray [np.float64] and (optionally) float
as_pdb(filename, mol_subset=0)[source]

Convert a MultiMolecule object into one or more Protein DataBank files (.pdb).

Utilizes the plams.Molecule.write method.

Parameters: filename (str) – The path+filename (including extension) of the to be created file. mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. None
as_mol2(filename, mol_subset=0)[source]

Convert a MultiMolecule object into one or more .mol2 files.

Utilizes the plams.Molecule.write method.

Parameters: filename (str) – The path+filename (including extension) of the to be created file. mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. None
as_mol(filename, mol_subset=0)[source]

Convert a MultiMolecule object into one or more .mol files.

Utilizes the plams.Molecule.write method.

Parameters: filename (str) – The path+filename (including extension) of the to be created file. mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. None
as_xyz(filename, mol_subset=None)[source]

Create an .xyz file out of this instance.

Comments will be constructed by iteration through MultiMolecule.properties["comments"] if the following two conditions are fulfilled:

• The "comments" key is actually present in MultiMolecule.properties.
• MultiMolecule.properties["comments"] is an iterable.
Parameters: filename (str) – The path+filename (including extension) of the to be created file. mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. None
as_mass_weighted(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None, inplace=False)[source]

Transform the Cartesian of this instance into mass-weighted Cartesian coordinates.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. inplace (bool) – Instead of returning the new coordinates, perform an inplace update of this instance. if inplace = False return a new MultiMolecule instance with the mass-weighted Cartesian coordinates of $$m$$ molecules with $$n$$ atoms. $$m*n*3$$ np.ndarray [np.float64] or None
from_mass_weighted(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Transform this instance from mass-weighted Cartesian into Cartesian coordinates.

Performs an inplace update of this instance.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. None
as_Molecule(mol_subset=None, atom_subset=None)[source]

Convert this instance into a list of plams.Molecule.

Parameters: mol_subset (slice) – Perform the calculation on a subset of molecules in this instance, as determined by their moleculair index. Include all $$m$$ molecules in this instance if None. atom_subset (Sequence) – Perform the calculation on a subset of atoms in this instance, as determined by their atomic index or atomic symbol. Include all $$n$$ atoms per molecule in this instance if None. A list of $$m$$ PLAMS molecules constructed from this instance. $$m$$ list [plams.Molecule]
classmethod from_Molecule(mol_list, subset='atoms')[source]

Construct a MultiMolecule instance from one or more PLAMS molecules.

Parameters: mol_list (plams.Molecule or list [plams.Molecule]) – A PLAMS molecule or list of PLAMS molecules. subset (Sequence [str]) – Transfer a subset of plams.Molecule attributes to this instance. If None, transfer all attributes. Accepts one or more of the following values as strings: "properties", "atoms" and/or "bonds". A MultiMolecule instance constructed from mol_list. FOX.MultiMolecule
classmethod from_xyz(filename, bonds=None, properties=None)[source]

Construct a MultiMolecule instance from a (multi) .xyz file.

Comment lines extracted from the .xyz file are stored, as array, under MultiMolecule.properties["comments"].

Parameters: filename (str) – The path+filename of an .xyz file. bonds ($$k*3$$ np.ndarray [np.int64]) – An optional 2D array with indices of the atoms defining all $$k$$ bonds (columns 1 & 2) and their respective bond orders multiplied by 10 (column 3). Stored in the MultieMolecule.bonds attribute. properties (dict) – A Settings object (subclass of dictionary) intended for storing miscellaneous user-defined (meta-)data. Is devoid of keys by default. Stored in the MultiMolecule.properties attribute. A MultiMolecule instance constructed from filename. FOX.MultiMolecule
classmethod from_kf(filename, bonds=None, properties=None)[source]

Construct a MultiMolecule instance from a KF binary file.

Parameters: filename (str) – The path+filename of an KF binary file. bonds ($$k*3$$ np.ndarray [np.int64]) – An optional 2D array with indices of the atoms defining all $$k$$ bonds (columns 1 & 2) and their respective bond orders multiplied by 10 (column 3). Stored in the MultieMolecule.bonds attribute. properties (dict) – A Settings object (subclass of dictionary) intended for storing miscellaneous user-defined (meta-)data. Is devoid of keys by default. Stored in the MultiMolecule.properties attribute. A MultiMolecule instance constructed from filename. FOX.MultiMolecule

## API FOX._MultiMolecule¶

class FOX.classes.multi_mol_magic._MultiMolecule(coords: numpy.ndarray, atoms: Optional[Dict[str, List[int]]] = None, bonds: Optional[numpy.ndarray] = None, properties: Optional[Dict[str, Any]] = None)[source]

Private superclass of MultiMolecule.

Handles all magic methods and @property decorated methods.

property loc

A getter and setter for atom-type-based slicing.

Get, set and del operations are performed using the list(s) of atomic indices associated with the provided atomic symbol(s). Accepts either one or more atomic symbols.

Examples

>>> mol = MultiMolecule(...)
>>> mol.atoms['Cd'] = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> mol.atoms['Se'] = [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]
>>> mol.atoms['O'] = [12, 13, 14]

>>> (mol.loc['Cd'] == mol[mol.atoms['Cd']]).all()
True

>>> idx = mol.atoms['Cd'] + mol.atoms['Se'] + mol.atoms['O']
>>> (mol.loc['Cd', 'Se', 'O'] == mol[idx]).all()
True

>>> mol.loc['Cd'] = 1
>>> print((mol.loc['Cd'] == 1).all())
True

>>> del mol.loc['Cd']
ValueError: cannot delete array elements

Parameters: mol (MultiMolecule) – A MultiMolecule instance; see AtGetter.atoms.
mol: :class:MultiMolecule

A MultiMolecule instance.

Return type: LocGetter
property atom12

Get or set the indices of the atoms for all bonds in MultiMolecule.bonds as 2D array.

Return type: _MultiMolecule
property atom1

Get or set the indices of the first atoms in all bonds of MultiMolecule.bonds as 1D array.

Return type: _MultiMolecule
property atom2

Get or set the indices of the second atoms in all bonds of MultiMolecule.bonds as 1D array.

Return type: ndarray
property order

Get or set the bond orders for all bonds in MultiMolecule.bonds as 1D array.

Return type: ndarray
property x

Get or set the x coordinates for all atoms in instance as 2D array.

Return type: _MultiMolecule
property y

Get or set the y coordinates for all atoms in this instance as 2D array.

Return type: _MultiMolecule
property z

Get or set the z coordinates for all atoms in this instance as 2D array.

Return type: _MultiMolecule
property symbol

Get the atomic symbols of all atoms in MultiMolecule.atoms as 1D array.

Return type: ndarray
property atnum

Get the atomic numbers of all atoms in MultiMolecule.atoms as 1D array.

Return type: ndarray
property mass

Get the atomic masses of all atoms in MultiMolecule.atoms as 1D array.

Return type: ndarray
property radius

Get the atomic radii of all atoms in MultiMolecule.atoms as 1d array.

Return type: ndarray
property connectors

Get the atomic connectors of all atoms in MultiMolecule.atoms as 1D array.

Return type: ndarray
copy(order='C', deep=True)[source]

Create a copy of this instance.

Parameters: order (str) – Controls the memory layout of the copy. See np.ndarray.copy for details. copy_attr (bool) – Whether or not the attributes of this instance should be returned as copies or views. A copy of this instance. FOX.MultiMolecule